सामान्य ज्ञान सिम्पलीफाइड भाग-1

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General knowledge simplified-1


*Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials.

*Interestingly, the NSG was set up in 1974 as a reaction to India’s nuclear tests to stop what it called the misuse of nuclear material meant for peaceful purposes.

*Currently, it has 48 members.

*Once admitted, an NSG member state:

-Gets timely information on nuclear matters.
-Contributes by way of information.
-Has confirmed credentials.
-Can act as an instrument of harmonization and coordination.
-Is part of a very transparent process.

Manas National Park (MNP):

*Manas National Park is a national park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve and a biosphere reserve in Assam, India.

*Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan.

*The Manas river flows thorough the west of the park and is the main river within it. It is a major tributary of Brahmaputra river and splits into two separate rivers, the Beki and Bholkaduba as it reaches the plains.
The Manas river also serves as an international border dividing India and Bhutan.

*The bedrock of the savanna area in the north of the park is made up of limestone and sandstone, whereas the grasslands in the south of the park stand on deep deposits of fine alluvium.

*The combination of Sub-Himalayan Bhabar Terai formation along with the riverine succession continuing up to Sub-Himalayan mountain forest make it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world.

*The fauna of the sanctuary include Indian elephants, Indian rhinoceros, gaurs, Asian water buffaloes, barasingha, Indian tigers, Indian leopards, clouded leopards, Asian golden cats, dholes, capped langurs, golden langurs, Assamese macaques, slow loris, hoolock gibbons, smooth-coated otters, sloth bears, barking deers, hog deers, black panthers, sambar deers and chitals.

*The park is well known for species of rare and endangered wildlife that are not found anywhere else in the world like the Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog.


Karnala Bird Sanctuary (KBS):

*The KBS is covered with moist mixed deciduous forest and falls in the Western Ghat bio-geographic zone.
*The sanctuary is particularly rich in climbers and as many as 11 species are recorded from KBS.

*Among mammals, three species of primates (Common Langur, Bonnet Macaque and Rhesus macaque) are occurring in the sanctuary. Barking Deer, Wild Pig, Jackals, Hyaena, Jungle Cat, Squirrel, Porcupine and Indian
*Hare are also reported from the sanctuary.
*KBS is particularly known for its rich avifauna and is home to over 146 species of resident and 37 species of migratory birds that visit during winter.

*Rare endemic birds of Western Ghats such as Malabar grey Hornbill, Ashy Minivet, three-toed Kingfisher and Malabar Trogon are reported from Sanctuary.

*Among other significant bird species the records of Malabar Whistling Thrush, long-billed Vulture, Indian Scimitar Babbler and Shaheen Falcon are significant.



*The LED is a light source which uses semiconductors and electroluminescence to create light.
*The LED uses a small semiconductor crystal with reflectors and other parts to make the light brighter and focused into a single point.
*Unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs, they don’t have a filament that will burn out, and they don’t get especially hot. *They are illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, and they last just as long as a standard transistor.

*What determines the color of an LED?

-The material used in the semiconducting element of an LED determines its color.

-The two main types of LEDs presently used for lighting systems are aluminum gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP, sometimes rearranged as AlInGaP) alloys for red, orange and yellow LEDs; and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) alloys for green, blue and white LEDs.
-Slight changes in the composition of these alloys changes the color of the emitted light.



The UDAY scheme

-aimed at bringing ailing power distribution companies (discoms) to a state of operational efficiency, with state governments taking over up to 75% of their respective discoms’ debt and issuing sovereign bonds to pay back the lenders.

-UDAY envisages a permanent resolution of past as well as potential future issues of the sector
–The scheme seeks to achieve this through several simultaneous steps including reducing the interest burden on the discoms by allowing the states to take over the bulk of their debt, reducing the cost of power, and increasing the operational efficiencies of the discoms by providing capital and infrastructure like coal linkages.


Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO):

-It is a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
-These countries, except for Uzbekistan, had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organisation.

-The SCO is seen as a counter to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
-With observer states included, its affiliates account for about half of the world’s population.
-The SCO has established relations with the United Nations, where it is an observer in the General Assembly, the European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
-India and Pakistan were accepted as full members of the organization in July 2015.



-Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor is a mega infra-structure project
–of USD 90 billion
-with the financial & technical aids from Japan,
— covering an overall length of 1483 KMs between the political capital and the business capital of India, i.e. Delhi and Mumbai.
-A MoU in this regard was signed in 2006.

-The project would include six mega investment regions of 200 square kilometres each and
–will run through six states Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, Southern Haryana, Eastern Rajasthan, Eastern Gujarat, and Western Maharashtra.
-The project aims to develop an environmentally sustainable, long lasting and technological advanced infrastructure utilizing cutting age
–Japanese technologies and to create world class manufacturing and investment destinations in this region.



-Nilgai, also called bluebuck,
-the largest Asian antelope (family Bovidae).
– The nilgai is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.
-It is the only one of the four Indian antelopes that is still abundant.
-It is the largest of all Asian antelopes and is one of the most commonly seen wild animals in all of India.
-The nilgai is categorised as Least Concern by the IUCN.


*With its oil demand galloping 8.1% in 2015, India has surpassed Japan to become the world’s third-largest oil consumer.
* India is the third-largest consumer behind the U.S. and China.
* Also, global demand for primary energy grew only 1% in 2015, which is significantly slower than the 10-year average.
* Oil remained the world’s leading fuel, accounting for 32.9% of global energy consumption and is gaining market share for the first time since 1999.
* Coal came in as the second-largest fuel by market share (29.2%).
* Natural gas’ market share of primary energy consumption stood at 23.8%.



-The MTCR regime urges its 34 members, which include most of the world’s key missile manufacturers, to restrict their exports of missiles and related technologies capable of carrying a 500-kilogram payload at least 300 kilometers or delivering any type of weapon of mass destruction.
-Since 2008 India has been one of the five countries that are unilateral adherents to the MTCR.